Arxiu de la categoria: Projecció Internacional

Projecció Internacional (Recopilatori)

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11 de setembre 2001

11 de setembre 2001

  • “La realitat és un missatge xifrat del Da-sein” (Heidegger)

Qui s’hauria cregut mai un atac com el d’aquesta data?. Fins i tot si Hollywood hagués fet un film així, l’haurien tatxat unanimement d’americanada patriotera i de ment apocalíptica de sectari -amb febre alta. I, tanmateix, ha succeït i és cert. Com per pessigar-se i donar-se galtades a la cara.

Per què, de tot plegat, de la magnitud del desastre, i del xoc de civilitzacions, i de la greu inestabilitat política internacional que ennuvolen l’horitzó amb una grisor rúfola?

I una qüestió quasi insidiosa i amb aparença surrealista: Per què tot just un 11 de setembre fou la presa de Barcelona, la caiguda d’Allende i l’atac islamista contra els Estats Units? No cal parlar pas de casualitats, sinó en el karma dels deutes de justícia amuntegats. Parlar de casualitats és un nivell inferior i malfeiner de comprensió humana.

L’Imperi espanyol de l’època de Carlos III i França ajudaren els Estats Units a independitzar-se d’Anglaterra. I això ho feren també amb catalans esclaus que combatien a les guerres del rei borbó. També religiosos, damnats a pa i aigua si gosaven parlar llur llengua materna catalana, els quals (franciscans mallorquins) van fundar San Francisco i prou importants ciutats més de Califòrnia.

Els Estats Units, en l’època Nixon –definit per cronistes contemporanis com a paranoic psicòpata- programà amb el seu sinistre Talleyrand (Kissinger) el cop d’Estat contra Salvador Allende (11 set. 1973), substituït pel Dictador terrorista Pinochet, responsable de tantes morts i tortures.

El pare de l’actual president nordamericà, en Bush, bombardejà directament un país, l’Iraq, contra objectius civils. I bombardejaven, quan Johnson i Nixon, i amb napalm, el Vietnam, en una política certament molt cruel.

Estats Units salvaren dues vegades les potències europees occidentals a les dues guerres mundials, a més de guanyar la Guerra Freda, i promoure o acceptar la independència d’un munt de nacions esclaves arreu Europa després de la Primera Guerra Mundial (Hongria, Polònia, Irlanda, Txecoslovàquia, Estats Bàltics…) i de l’ensorrament de la URSS (desmembració d’aquest gegant i de Jugoslàvia).

Tanmateix no feren res per Catalunya, malgrat que prou catalans sí que arriscaren la vida per ajudar els aliats. Ítem més: acabaren donant suport el nostre genocida Franco per raons de geoestratègia internacional anticomunista. Els descreguts catalans que preferíem confiar en homes que en la Providència (“Maleït l’home qui confia en l’home, però beneït qui confia en Déu”, està escrit), sempre quedant-nos en el desert brusent.

El deute dels Estats Units amb Catalunya és de rellevància: a través del nostre esclavatge sota Espanya, a través dels abandons repetits de les potències europees i dels EEUU a la nostra pocasolta o obligada generositat, a través de les fundacions civils de la nostra gent…

11 DE SETEMBRE DEL 1714
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Potser és per això, com un recordatori de l’Holocaust català i xilè, que la Providència ha permès que l’atemptat fos planejat pels terroristes a Catalunya (a Salou) i que s’esdevingués, en la mateixa data de l’aixafament de Catalunya pels espanyols (11 setembre 1714), una catàstrofe de tals dimensions al rovell de l’Imperi, un Imperi on la gent certament és potser més cristiana i creient que no en uns altres llocs, i en un Imperi que ha estat potser menys tirànic i prou més benigne que uns altres Imperis anteriors, però que destrueix el món i la natura, i que té una velocitat d’inèrcia imparable per fer escolar les nacions pobres, amb el neoliberalisme salvatge d’avarícia, sota una misèria cada vegada més terrible, ben en contra de les paraules de les Escriptures. A Isaïes llegim: “Què penseu vosaltres que aixafeu el meu poble i bufetegeu les cares dels pobres?, diu el Senyor” (3:5). “Ai dels qui ajunten casa i una altra casa, i heretatge i més heretatges, fins a ocupar-ho tot!” (5:8). “Com va aturar l’opressor, com va acabar la ciutat cobejosa d’or!” (14:2-4).

Però les 2/3 parts de la Humanitat són pobres mantinguts al fons del subdesenvolupament: cada dia moren unes 100.000 persones (de les quals uns 40.000 nins) per malnodriment. Mentrestant, cada minut, cents de milions són invertits en armamement i cada any ingressa dins el volum global de diners mundials devers un 8% més de diners, provinents del blanqueig del gran narcotràfic i el tràfic d’armes, amplament aprovat a les fosques per tota mena de Governs i Bancs de tot arreu, ja que en trauen enormes guanys per a si mateixos.

“Que la taula parada se’ls torni una trampa,
i allò que és el seu benestar, un parany!”.
(Psalm 69: 22).

“Salvarà els fills del pobre i esclafarà l’opressor” (Psalm 72:4).  “Qui oprimeix (àshaq) el pobre (dal) insulta el Déu que el va crear; però qui afavoreix l’indigent (ébyon) fa adoració a Déu”· (Proverbis 14:31). “La misericòrdia triomfa per damunt el Judici” (Jaume 2:13). De fet, al Sermó de la Muntanya, Jesucrist diu que Déu tindrà misericòrdia dels misericordiosos, i l’únic verset que Jesucrist repeteix als Evangelis més d’una vegada és Osees o Ausiàs 6:6: “Misericòrdia vull i no pas sacrifici, i que Déu sia donat a conèixer tal com realment és, millor que no pas tanta cerimònia”.

11 DE SETEMBRE DEL 1973
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Així començà i així descrivia Jesús (Jah-xua en hebreu, literalment: Deú salva) el seu ministeri, bo i referint-se a Isaïes i a Levític: “¿No serà pas, més aïna, aquest altre el dejuni que jo vull: deslligar els nusos de maldat, desfer les junteres del jou, despatxar en llibertat els aclaparats i trencar qualsevol jou? No serà compartir amb el famolenc el teu pa, els pobres sense llar rebre a ta casa? Que quan vegis un nu el cobresques, i del teu proisme no te n’apartis?” (Isaïes 58:6-7). També Isaïes 61:1-8.

“I santificareu l’any cinquantè, i pregonareu llibertat arreu la terra a tots els qui hi viuen; aqueix any us serà de jubileu…” (Levític 25:10). Vegeu també Levític 25:35-55. El Jubileu implicava alliberament d’esclaus i perdó de deutes socials, cada 50 anys: un mitjà de justícia social bíblica.

2ª Corintis 9:8-9. Puix que…

“¿Fins quan jutjareu contra justícia
afavorint la causa dels culpables?
Defenseu els febles i els orfes,
feu justícia als pobres i als desvalguts!
Allibereu els indigents i els febles,
arranqueu-los de les mans dels injusts!.
Però ells no tenen seny ni enteniment,
caminen a les fosques;
fins els fonaments se la terra se somouen!
“Doncs jo declar: Ni que siau déus,
ni que siau tots fills de l’Altíssim,
com qualsevol home morireu,
caureu com han caigut tants governants”.
(Psalm 82:2-5)

Déu passa comptes en la diada de la seva ira, fins i tot amb els que ha beneït especialment.

Els fonamentalistes religiosos nordamericans diuen coses de l’estil que és la ràpida secularització dels Estats Units, el rebuig a les oracions a les escoles, etc. allò que ha deixat desprotegida Amèrica front a un atac així.

Però això és sols la part dretana de les causes possibles: s’obliden del que fan contra gent desprotegida en països pobres: “Misericòrdia vull, i no pas sacrifici i que Déu sia conegut tal com és abans que tanta cerimònia” (Osees 6:6, aquest verset, vacuna contra beats, és, significativament, el verset de l’Antic Testament més repetit per Jesús als Evangelis). Pertot els fonamentalistes religiosos donen suport a governs immisericordes i cruels, sovint tecnofeixistes que aguanten Dictadors-titella al Tercer Món, que es dediquen desvergonyidament al massiu blanqueig de diners  provinents de tota mena de tèrbols negocis (i dels grans: droga, escandalosos pressuposts militars i tràfic d’armament cap a països pobres governats per tiranies sanguinàries, prostitució, menors…), amb excuses de finançament de llurs col·legis i seminaris i la imposició a tota la societat de llurs punts de vista morals. Llegiu Apocalipsi 18: 15-16. El moralisme sense justícia no ve de Déu, ni tampoc salva. “¿No sabeu que els injusts no tindran pas part del Regne de Déu?. No us feu il·lusions!” (1ª Cor. 6:9). “No podeu servir Déu i les riqueses” (Lluc 16:13). “Perquè l’arrel de tots els mals és l’amor als diners” (1ª Tim. 6:10).

La Bíblia -a diferència de la pecadriu tradició eclesiàstica- no cerca enteses per conveniències amb el poder temporal i amb la violència institucional; els profetes ho demostren a bastament.

Déu exigeix també Justícia. Ens cal col·laborar-hi, en un món curull de sofriment, per tal que l’Amor de Déu fluesca a través nostre.

11 DE SETEMBRE DEL 2001
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I, tanmateix, que Déu hagi permès aquest cop tan brutal al cor d’Occident és de creure que no és sols un càstig a la nostra embogida i genocida avarícia (no sols dels Estats Units, compte, que la cosa és ben general, i ni sols a Occident, és el món sencer), és també un avís molt greu a tothom. Si així tracta la nació que té per menys dolenta per als camins del seu Amor -que és generalment molt lluny del nostre- i que per això li ha donat el ceptre de poder mundial, potser és perquè com diu la Paraula, el Judici comença pels de la pròpia casa i, si als qui El reconeixen els ha passat això, què no pot passar als que no El reconeixen!…és un toc d’avís a les portes de l’abisme.

Potser és com aquell qui molt estima i que, gelós d’una parella infidel, dóna un cop de puny contra la paret i es fa ell mateix mal i sang per no fer-ne a la parella infidel la qual estima. Potser un gran cop de puny apocalíptic.

L’amor és així. Però és un amor a la vora de l’abisme.

Potser el Judici d’uns deutes insatisfets en dues dates de l’11 de setembre, de molts bombardeigs injusts i desproporcionats, de molta avarícia, des del Bush pare al fill, han dut reptant fins a aquesta catàstrofe. I aquest raonament, que és prou toynbeeà, prou bíblic i prou nordamericà, els nordamericans el podrien entendre bé, perquè també a muntó ens hi sentim nordamericans, malgrat ser esclaus catalans.

Fatídic 11 de setembre i insubornable jutge de les dessídies i maldats humanes.

Catalunya, 15-09-2001

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia

War of the Spanish Succession

A Chronology of the genocide and repression from France and Spain against  Catalonia

  • 2-4-1700: France forbids the Catalan language: Totalitarian edict by “the Sun-king” according to which only the French language has legal effects.The Catalan peasant population remains legally unprotected because they do not know the imperial language.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 05

  • 20-10-1700. The king of Castile and Aragon- Catalonia, Carlos II, drafts his last will in favor of the Duke of Anjou, in whole contradiction with the Pyrenees’ Treaty (1659), between Madrid andf Paris, which one explicitly excluded any right from the French Royal Dinasty on any Hispanic crowns through weddings: the Duke is Carlos II’s nephew.
  • 1700-1713:”The Academy of the Distrusted ones” works, founded as a literary institution, made up by writers who will stand out in their antibourbonism; as P.L.Dalmases, the Boixadors, the Pinós, the Rocabertí, etc…
  • 1-11-1700: Carlos II dies without direct offspring, he is the last Hispanic Habsburg.
    N. Feliu de la Penya wrote: “Carlos II…chose the Duke of Anjou…with Catalonians´ amazement…it was occasion for suspicion on some deceit” (“Anales”). As when the Barcelona Dinasty finished without direct offspring, and the Castilian Dinasty of the Trastamara got the Catalan crown (1412) against signed  treaties; so now a French anticatalan Dinasty gets Hispanic crowns against signed treaties.
  • 8-11-1700: News about his death arrive to Paris. The “Sun-King” is hunting “with his ladies”. Only on realizing it he calls the Duke of Anjou (in the future “Felipe V”), his son, and grandson of Felipe IV (Calos II’s father and an enemy against Catalonians during the Reapers’ War). The Duke, therefore carries on the title of the great medieval enemies of Catalonia (The Anjou), is “a man without intelligence, of a very unbalanced mood, sluggish…completely insensitive about the misery and pain of fellow human beings, wicked, he would have been cuel if he would not have been sluggish”, “engrossed in his fat and his darkness” (St. Simon). Thus, he is a lazy psychopath who will never do enough even to speak properly Castilian language. He is great-great-grandfaher of the great-great-grandfather of Juan Carlos I, the present Spanish king.
  • 11-11-1700: Manuel Oms de Santa Pau, ambassador from Madrid in Paris and Marquis of Castelldosrius, says to the Duke, in Castilian:”…the  Pyrenees are sank”. The Duke understand nothing despite the fact his mother is a Castilian Queen.
    16-11-1700: Louis XIV the tyrann apoints to his son King of the Spains.
  • 1700-1717: Decrees from the French absolute Monarchy to impose the French as the only official language of Courts and notaries in Northern Catalonia (under military French occupation since the Reapers´ war half a century before).
    18-2-1701: The Duke enters Madrid, where he is proclaimed king of Castile as Felipe V.
  • 1701: French traders control the Valencian trade business (Valencian Kingdom  is Southern Catalonia). The lower-class people accuse them of getting rich at their expense. The anti-French feeling spread amongst the Valencian lower clergy.
  • 9.1701: Great alliance at The Hague: England, Holland and the Empire (Austria); they propose the Archduke Karl as pretender to King of the Spains, since they fear the union of France and the Spanish Empire which would unbalance the distribution of the European power.
  • 2.10.1701: The Duke of Anjou meets Catalan Parliament and swears its laws and freedoms.
  • 10.1701: The Duke is appointed king of Catalonians: “Felip IV” in Catalonia (“Felipe V” in Castile).
  • At the end of 1701: France invades Holland.
  • 3.1702: The Allied declare war to France and to Felip V.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia

  • 1703: Leopold the Emperor proclaims the Archduke Karl as king of the Spains in Vienna.
    Prussia, Savoia and Portugal join to the Allied.
  • 1703-1704: Felipe V favour the French monopoly in the commerce in his kingdoms.
  • Spring.1704: In Vienna first contacts between the British representative Mitford Crowe and Antoni de Peguera i Aimerich (lord of Foix and Torrelles and a member of the Distrusters’ Academy) and the lawyer Domènec Perera, Catalan representatives.
  • 5.1704: Before Barcelona 1600 allied marines land. “Vigatans” (a small anti-Bourbon nobility from Vic, in Central Catalonia) had to open the doors for them, but the conspiracy is uncoverd and they have to flee through Gibraltar. The allied Army is under command of the prince Hessen-Darmstadt, last place General lieutinant in Catalonia under Carlos II, very popular among the Catalonians.
    Bourbon repression, imprisonments.
  • 1704: In Portugal the Archduke lands, the war mobilization starts in the peninsula.
    Decisive battle in Blenheim: Therefore the allied throw out the French Armies from Germany. Beginning of the decadence of Louis XIV’s enormous power.
  • 4.8.1704: The Valencian Gen. Basset and Catalan volunteers make easy the allied occupation of Gibraltar, lead by the Adm. Rooke. In Gibraltar there yet a “Catalan Bay”. Expulsion of the indigenous population to the Algesiras Bay.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 03

  • 17.5.1705: The military Moragues and other “Vigatans” and important persons grant powers to the Ll.D.Domènec Perera to do Catalonia to enter the anti-Bourbon alliance.
  • 5.1705: The anti-Bourbon uprising starts in the plane of Vic.
  • 2.6.1705: Geneve Pact: An Alliance’s treaty between the plenipotentiaries A. De Peguera and Dr. Perera (Catalonia) and Mr. Mitford Crowe (England). London promises 8000 soldiers, 2000 cavalry, ammunition and total support to the Catalan liberties. Catalonia  promises the support of its Parliament´s members and of the “Council of Hundred”, and 6000 men.
  • 20.7.1705: The allied fleet arrives at Barcelona. Propaganda at the Archduke´s favor.
  • 21.7.1705: Vigatans openly march to Barcelona, on his way gather supporters.
  • 4.8.1705: Catalan victory, with only 250 men against the 1000 foot-soldiers and 100 riders of the Bourbon viceroy.
  • 10.8.1705: The Anglo-Dutch fleet lands at Altea (Valencian Kingdom or Southern Catalonia). With them, Basset and Francesc Garcia land: the first, coming from other wars, the second, exiled from a former agrarian revolt.
  • 16.8.1705: Allied enter Alzira, nearby Valencia.
  • 17.8.1705: Basset lands at Dénia, where the Archduke is announced as the new Valencian King.

dénia arxiduc

  • Since 8.1705: The Valencian peasantry, after being oppressed by the lordshops’ abusive taxes, support the Austracists, who promise them improvement. They take the name of “Maulets” (a diminutive of “Mawla”, slave in Arabic), a name taken already by the rebelled preasantry in the Valencian Kingdom some years ago. Basset will be the brave radical military of these disinherited.
  • 24.8.1705: Moragues and 800 men turn up before Barcelona.
  • At the end 8.1705: Allied landing on Barcelona.
  • 14.9.1705: Allied attack on Montjuïc.
  • 15.9.1705: Second allied bombardment on Barcelona.
  • 9.10.1705: Barcelona surrenders to Charles Mondaunt, count of Petersborough.
  • 12.10.1705: Girona surrenders. Bourbon troops retreat to France.
  • 7.11.1705: The Archduke formally enters Barcelona: he takes an oath to the Catalan liberties.
  • 11.1705: Representatives from every Catalan countries, from the Catalan Aragon (even Monzon/Montsó) and from the Valencian North come to pay homage to the Archduke.
    Austracist conspirancy in Northern Catalonia (under French occupation).
  • 11 to 12.1705: Almost all the Central Catalonia goes over to the Allied. British occasionally help to conquer some strong place as Tarragona.
  • 15.12.1705: Basset with 500 countrymen and 300 riders arrives to Valencia. Bourbon followers (“botiflers” in Catalan, from “Beautiful+flowers”) lack means to make a defense. Prisoners’ riot.
  • 16.12.1705: The lower people gets out the street in Valencia to shout at the privileged ones and in favor of the Archduke, some prominent men imprison the Bourbon Viceroy and open the town doors to Basset.
    At St. Mateu (Valencian North) the British General Jone arrives.
  • 18.12.1705: Surrender of St. Mateu. The allied siege to Peníscola (Val.North) begins.
  • 12.1705: Exile of Valencian “botiflers”.
    “Maulets” and Allied control most in the Valencian Kingdom, and Basset assumes the government.
  • 12.1705 to 3.1706: The Catalan Parliament request to the Archduke (Charles III) to recover Northern Catalonia, under French occupation, and the access to the American trade, absolutely monopolized by Castilians.
  • 12.1.1706: The Castilian army of the Count de las Torres has failed at St. Mateu and comes down through the South. They attack Vila-real, a Maulet villa near by Castelló: they sack the town and its churches, slit the throat of civilians and set the villa on fire. 272 inhabitants die (among them 7 priests and 7 womwn) and take with them more than 200 prisoners. But more than 500 Castilian soldiers die too there, because of the brave civilian defence.
  • 2.1706: The British Gen. Petersborough arrives at Valencia and replaces Basset, judged too much radical. The new viceroy demands feudal taxes again.
  • 3.1706: Bourbon troops attack Central Catalonia.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 01

  • 4.1706: Defence of Barcelona, 50 Allied warships end up putting on retreat to the French fleet.
  • 2.7.1706: Charles III enters triumphantly at Madrid, with Catalan soldiers (“miquelets”), for great repulsion from the ancient anti-Catalanism of the capital city in the Empire.
  • 10.7.1706: Charles III has to retreat from Madrid to Aragon. Basset is accused of abuses when defending Xàtiva from the Bourbon troops and he is imprisoned by Petersborough.
  • 7.1706: Charles III is at Zaragoza, Felipe V come back to Madrid. Valencian popular indignation for Basset’s imprisonment.
  • 29.9.1706: The Anglo-Duch squadron shows up at Majorca Bay.
  • Ends.9.1706: Anti-Bourbon  popular  pressure in Majorca.
  • 10.1706: Charles III confiscates the Valencian botiflers’ properties. Expulsion of French citizens and exile of nobility from Majorca.Cartagena (in the ancient Murcia Kingdom,under Castilian occupation), where Catalan was still spoken, is occupied by Botiflers. Luís Belluga, the Bishop in Cartagena is a pro-Bourbon fanatic.
  • 11.10.1706: Belluga’s Castilians occupy Oriola (Southern Valencian Kingdom), where they will persecute the Catalan language: now, noone speaks Catalan there).
  • 21.10.1706: The offensive against the Valencian South continues: the Duke of Berwick takes up and sacks Elx.
  • 10.1706: Menorca and Eivissa go over to the Allied.”Maulet” uprising at the Plana (Castelló countryside).
  • 4.1707: Anglo-Dutch-Portuguese counter offensive against the Castilian border near the Valencian South.
  • 25.4.1707: Decisive battle at Almansa (La Mancha, near to Valencian Kingdom). 25000 Allied against 25000 French-Castilians. Allied retreat with 500 dead and 12000 prisoners. This serious defeat leaves València almost defenseless before Bourbons. Today still exists a Valencian popular saying that goes: “When the evil comes from Almansa reaches everybody”.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 02

  • 5.1707:French-Spanish troops march towards València, so Basset is finally released from the prison of Lleida (West-central Catalonia) to organize the Valencian resistance.
  • 8.5.1707: The Duke of Berwick arrives at València. The city is declared open.
    In addition, surrender of Zaragoza.
  • 12.5.1707: Berwick arrives at Castelló de la Plana, where he charges an exagerated tax of war and brings down the city walls.
  • 6.6.1707: Surrender of  Xàtiva (near to València), after a long siege.
  • 19.6.1707: The lieutenant Genaral d’ Asfeld commands to set fire and to destroy Xàtiva, the big Middle Age city. This genocide will be psychologically deeply significant.Expulsion of more than 18000 citizens from Xàtiva and change of name, its former Roman name pass to be replaced by “San Felipe”, in honor to the tyrann (until 1811). At Xàtiva, today still exists an official paint of Felipe V up side down.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 06

  • 29.6.1707: Felipe V signs the “Nueva Planta” decree against València and Aragon Kingdoms that he considers “conquered” and declares their ancient parlamentary laws abolished “…because the just right of conquer over them my weapons hacve made lately”. Nevertheless, Maulets still control the Valencian North and the Alcoi-Alacant-Dénia triangle in the Valencian South.
  • 1707: Very often the high Clergy in Catalonia are Castilians, Botiflers and ultra-popist. Also Jesuits are so. But the lower clergy is strongly austracist. And they often take part as contacts between conspiracies, prisoners and Allied, besides of inducing the people to the Archduke favor. Naples-Sicily goes over to the Archduke, Menorca to the Bourbon.
    End of the independence of Scotland by the “Covenant”, a treaty of voluntary union with England.
  • 30.9.1707: Felipe V donates Llíria, Xèrica, Barracas, etc., free villas, to the Duke of Berwick.
  • 14.10.1707: Lleida surrenders to the invaders.
  • 11.1707: Fall of Tàrrega, Cervera and El Pla d’ Urgell (West-central Catalonia).
  • 9.1.1708: Fall of Alcoi, after a severe siege: executions, reprisals and abolition of laws and the local festivities to St. George, patron saint of Catalonia.
  • 1708: A very unstable military situation at the Valencian North. D’ Asfeld, the arsonist of Xàtiva, controls the Audience of València, instrument of the foreign military occupation.
  • 11.7.1708: Bourbon troops occupy Tortosa (South-central Catalonia).
  • 7.1708: The Allied take over the island of Sardinia.
  • 17.9.1708: The Anglo-Dutch Squadron of Adm. Leake commanded by Gen. Stanhope easily recovers the island of Menorca (East Catalonia).
  • 17.11.1708: Spaniards occupy Dénia.
  • Beginning.12.1708: Alacant (Alicante in Spanish), occupied by the British that blow up part of the defences in the castle, is sieged by D’Asfeld.
  • 7.12.1708: Spaniards occupy Alacant. Along the Valencian Kingdom remains only guerillas.
  • 1709: The famine spreads along the Valencian Kingdom because of the war taxes.
    Valencian botiflers are unhappy against the new Castilian laws and send representatives in order to recover their ancient laws, these ones are too imprisoned. Narcís Feliu de la Penya publishes “Anales”, story on the war, seized by the Bourbon censorship. War at the Cerdanya (Pyrenees). Allied victories (Malplaquet…): Louis XIV is left so weakened that abandons his son and almost surrenders.
  • 1.7.1709: Salvador Feliu (Narcís’ brother) and other tradesmen, one of them resident in Gibraltar, found in Barcelona the new company of Gibraltar to replace the Cadiz monopoly in the American trade.
  • 1710: Second demand of return of the Valencian own laws, boycotted by a Court controled by Castilians.
  • 5.7.1710: Failed insurrectional attempt in València-city, at turning up 4 British warships that cannot land due to lack of popular support.
  • 7.1710: Battle of Almenara (North near to València), where Felipe V is about to die.
  • 27.7.1710: Catalan victory in Almenar (near Lleida).
  • 8.9.1710: New Maulet uprising at the Valencian North.
  • 28.9.1710: Charles III takes over Madrid once again.
  • 23.10.1710: The Bourbon Col. Ibáñez shoots 41 “miquelets” (austracist Catalan soldiers) imprisoned in Altura (North-west Valencian Kingdom).
  • 29.10.1710: Austracists bombard Morella ( Valencian North).
  • 9.11.1710: Charles III abandons again Madrid.
  • 15.11.1710: 60 Austracists dead in the attack against Morella.
  • 11.1710: Felipe V is enthusiastically welcome in Madrid.
  • 9.12.1710: The Duke of Vendôme defeats the British in Brihuega (Castile).
  • 10.12.1710: The Duke of Noailles defeats the Austrians in Villaviciosa (near Madrid).
  • 15.12.1710: While Morella surrenders, the Duke of Noailles lay siege to Girona (near Pyrenees) and Charles III comes back to Barcelona.
  • 25.1.1711: Girona surrenders.
  • 3.2.1711: Morella falls in Bourbon hands.
  • 1711: Josef I of Austria (Brother of Karl/Charles III) dies. Charles III is appointed as his successor (Karl VI). The Allied disaprove the accumulatioon of crowns and in addition everyone is tired. From now on the internatuional diplomacy will be decided.
  • 27.9.1711: Karl VI/Charles III abandons Catalonia, where he leaves his wife.
  • 2.1712: A peace Conference between  France and Holland-England starts in Utrecht (Holland).
  • 1712: New negotiations through the Duke of Vendôme: Valencian Botiflers want to recover the ancient Valencian laws.
  • 7.1712: Felipe V formally resigns to the French Crown.
  • 8.1712: Agreement on the hostilities suspension.
  • 12.1712: Tories, who are running England, are afraid of a union between the German and the Hispanic Empires and abandon the Alliance.Afterwards, also abandon Portugal and Holland.
  • 1712-1736: Sir Richard Kane, first British governor in Menorca, builds up the main road, dry up swamps, imports cattle.
  • 19.3.1713: The Empress, foreign diplomats and many families of noble Austracists boards from Barcelona to Italy and Vienna.
  • 20.3.1713: Starhemberg pledges allegiance to the post of lieutenant General of the place, in the Empress’ substitution.
  • 11.5.1713: The Utrecht Treaty remains signed.
  • 22.6.1713: Secret agreement in L’Hospitalet, signed at the Catalonians’ backs to hand over Catalonia to the Bourbon.
  • 24.6.1713: Starhemberg the First General declares the Gen. Moragues to be out of loyalty to Charles of Austria.
  • 25.6.1713: Starhemberg reveals the secret agreement to the Barcelona Council.
  • 26.6.1713: Moragues and the officers read the Starhemberg’s letter.
  • 1.7.1713: Austrians abandon Catalonia at its misfortune.
  • 6.7.1713: The 3 Arms’ Committee decides to resist to death.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 08

  • 9.7.1713: Catalan call to resist just before Starhemberg boarding: “Let the nation perish with glory!”.
  • 12.7.1713: Declaration f the Valencian Maulets in support at the Barcelona defence.
  • 13.7.1713: Conclusion of the Utrecht Treaty, powers make a partition of the Catalan Confederation’s medieval possessions: England keeps Menorca, Savoia will have got Sicily, Austria expropiates Sardinia -where rivers of Catalan blood flowed in the XIV-XV centuries- and Naples. The metropolis will stay under a more totalitarian boot: the Louis XIV’s lineage. The “Catalan tunic” shared out before the crucifixion.
  • 25.7.1713: The French-Spaniards begin the siege against Barcelona.
  • 1713: The Maulet guerillas still fight through la Marina and el Maestrat (Valencian countrysides) against the invader. The “General Superintendency” is created for the militar occupation of Central Catalonia.
  • 10.1713: Felipe V throws out the Montserrat Monastery its abbot.
  • 1.1714: First tax of occupation in Central Catalonia (not voted by the Catalan Parliament) provokes an uprising against the Bourbon occupants.
  • 3.1714: Radstadt Peace: The Emperor “Karl VI” receives the ex Catalan Italy.
  • 6.1714: The Utrecht Peace conclusion: Felipe V signs peace with Holland, Portugal still not join it.
  • 1714: Widower of his previous wife, Felipe V marries Isabel of Farnese, an ambitious and dominant fat woman who will control the government to war for Kingdoms to her sons.
  • Spaniards set fire to Manresa , St. Paul…(nearby Barcelona). Royal order (new piant is decree): “My wish of reducing every of my hispanic kingdoms to the uniformity…according to the Castilian laws”, lordly, centralist and absolutist laws.
  • Exile of  5000 Catalan Austracist to Austria. The General Council of Eivissa (Ibiza in Spanish) confirms its freedom will.
  • 6.7.1714: Berwick arrives to Barcelona with great reinforcements: 35000 troops, 5000 Cavalery. Towards 1485 troops, 380 Cavalry and 5000 of “La Coronela” (the united militias commanded by Villarroel) from Barcelona. The French-Spaniards overcome 10 times the Catalonians. According to Voltaire, up to 500 Catalan ecclesiastical men fought in arms to face the invasion.
  • Beginning.9.1714: Villarroel’s last harangue for the freedom of all Hispanic Kingdoms and the Catalan liberties towards France (economic competitor) and Castile (politic competitor) and for the stolen lands.
  • 11.9.1714: At 5 a.m. the attack starts through 7 breaches caused to the city wall by the Bourbon Artillery. 20000 French-Castilians begin the attack. The Council Chief, Rafael de Casanova, falls wounded between the sheets of the Sta. Eulàlia’s flag, the paleochristian martyr from Barcelona (patron saint after forbiden by Felipe V and replaced by a “Virgin of the Mercy”).
  • The combat is street to street and Berwick is forced to call for more troops from the reserve. At first hour in the afternoon, the heroic Catalonia’s capital has to surrender without reprisals, which will not be fulfilled.
  • The resistence of Barcelona had last 13 months and cause the admiration in the European public opinion, which compare it to the one of Saguntum and Numantia.
  • Even a British officer funds a “Barcelona” in Britain, in memory of the Catalan heroism.
    Barcelona has about 7000 houses. 6000 people die during the final siege, 4000 at the attack Day: die almost the most of defenders and part of the civil population.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 07

  • 18.9.1714: Occupation of other villas in Central Catalonia, no guaranty is fulfilled to by the invaders.
  • 3.10.1714: Disarmament Order for the Catalan civil population: Kitchen knives have to remain in chains, the country houses without wooden windows, etc.
  • 10.11.1714: Death Penalty Edict on anyone who try to leave from Catalonia without passport, but thousands continue fleeing the country.
  • End 1714: “Considerations about the case of the Catalans” and “The deplorable History of the Catalans”, two books in favor of Catalonia published in London, the last one printed by J. Baker and sold at the price of a shilling.
  • Before 1714: Maulet guerillas will last for several years but they will progressively become bandits because of  total Bourbon repression.
  • 10.1.1715: A graffity: “Entire Catalonia is a prison”.
  • At the beginning 1715: Several chroniclers talk about general misery in Central and Southern Catalonia.
  • 2.1715: Portugal has to join Utrecht without any profit: it remains at English hands to be defended from Castile/Spain.
  • 2 to 4.1715: Critical point of the Bourbon repression against Catalan militaries: within 3 months, over 3800 ones are imprisoned or deported.
  • 20.3.1715: When Moragues and other patriots were trying to board to Majorca are betrayed and fall in the Spanish clutches.
  • 27.3.1715: After brutal tortures, barefoot and wearning penitents’ shirt, Macip, Roca and Moragues are executed by garotte and teared appart. Moragues is about 40 years old, his head is put in a cage on an entrance door in Barcelona, with an “instructer” poster for the Catalonians’ lesson. In other towns also are left heads or hands in cages and gallows.

Poesia romàntica mallorquina 02

  • 1.6.1715: Felipe V orders to knock down the Barcelona fishermen neighbourhood called “La Ribera” to build up a Citadel: “For higher security and cautiousness against that town…putting…Artillery that dominates the city and keeps the people in subjection…”.
  • 13.6.1715: Spaniards forbid the Catechism in Catalan. “That great pride is depressed and already the preceptors of  H.M. are respected…by the superior force of weapons” (Council of Castile, speaking about Catalonians, in the plenary session).
  • 3.7.1715: After a month of resistance, Majorca falls in the clutches of Castile.
  • 7.1715: Eivissa also falls.
  • 1715: In many Catalan towns or villas there are no Botiflers (collaborationists) to form the City Councils, the population in mass is against the Spanish military occupation (Report from the Royal Committee).
  • The Vicar General at Barcelona, appointed by the invaders, calls to “obey, serve and venerate our king of Spain”.
  • Famished occupation troops settle in different villas. Madrid does not even pay to members ofd the powerful Council of Castile. Therefore they require and eat at Catalonians’ expenses.
  • Confiscation of property to any Austracist charge from 1713 to 1715. Law to reward the delation of anti-Bourbons: they will receive part of the confiscation if they denounce to any peasant who has given e.x. hurrahs to Charles III or shouted “Visca la Terra!” (“Long Life the Land!”, typical shout among the anti-feudal peasantry).
  • The big tyrann  Louis XIV, the “King-Sun”, dies.
  • 3.8.1715: (In Catalonia) “Houses full of soldiers. The rigor of the weapons is such that so a man (=Catalonians) is met in possession of a weapon, he is put to death”(Francesc Gelat).
  • 1715-1720: Famine in Central Catalonia.
  • 1715-1728: Escalation of Spanish taxes against  the Valencians.
  • 1.12.1715: “Everything must be formed in Castilian language…” (Fiscal’s report, from the Council of Castile).
  • 7.12.1715: Own government organs of Majorca and Eivissa are abolished by Madrid.
  • 9.12.1715: Royal Decree for the new tributary system. At the beginning the Royal Land Registry will be very abusive.
  • 22.1.1716: Sequestration of the historic book written by Narcís Feliu, considered “contrary to the State” by the Royal Committee.
  • 29.1.1716: J. Rodríguez Villalpando, the Fiscal, signs the “Secret Instructions” against the Catalan language in order to wipe it out.
  • 5.5.1716: The Abbot of Vivanco writes the definitive version of these “Secret Instructions”.
  • 1716: Courts in Barcelona and Majorca are created as instruments of the military administration of the Castilian occupation.
  • The building of the Citadel of occupation is started: neighbours, widows and children have to demolish the houses of a neighbourhood of 4000 inhabitants, with their own hands. This Citadel  is, nowdays, the actual seat of the Catalan autonomous Parliament.
  • Felipe V sends many Catalonians in an antiturkish expedition to Corfu.
  • 15.10.1716: Land Registry to pay the Castilian Army of occupation: Catalonia starts to subside its own executioners.
  • 20.2.1717: “(Put) the greatest care in introducing the Castilian language, in order to reach it the most composed pretencing measures will be given to get the effect without noticing the care” (“Dictated Instructions to the Correctors in Catalonia”). The Correctors (“Corregidores”) act as political Commissioners to force the Spaniardization.
  • 11.5.1717: “The tenacious Resistence of the Catalonians against the due subjection to my legitimate domain that theis perfidy did not admit…obliged my Providence to order Universities must be closed…”(Felipe V’s Decree, where this Antichrist names himself “Providence”). Catalan Universities remain abolished because they had been important centres of national resistance and culture. The botifler villa of Cervera (near Lleida) is rewarded with the creation of a University, “inclined to the Regime”. Very mediocre, it lacks even a library. Botifler professors flatter the Bourbon tyrann with the name of “Solon of Catalonia” because of the New Plant Decree.
  • 7.1717: Catalonians’ Mobilization to conquer Sardinia. Catalonians fight in both sides. Austria loses the island.
  • 1717: Growing madness and melancholy of Felipe V. The Bishop of Tortosa orders the only use of the Castilian on agreements and minutes.
  • 9.10.1717: Definitive abolition of the Lleida, Barcelona, Girona, Tarragona and Vic Universities. Bourbon authorities consider there is a surplus in students and that the plebs have not to access to the education.
  • 16.3.1718: Order to melt the “Honorata Bell”, which was used to call Barcelona citizens to fight against the invaders.
  • 1718:El Carrasclet’s Anti-Spanish guerillas. Alberoni, the Queen’s right hand, sends other army to occupy Sicily: she wishes some kingdom for her sons. Several deaths. Exiled Catalonians fight against the Turkish in the Balkans. Turkey hand over areas of  Rumania and Serbia to Austria.
  • 8.1718: Quadruple anti-Spanish Alliance: England, Austria, France and Savoia damn the Spanish Queen’s ambitions.France invades the Basque and Catalan borders.
  • 1718-1721: Civil Catalan War: Taking advantage of the invasion, Catalan patriots loot and set fire to possessions of those who collaborate with the Castilian occupation.
  • 5.1719: French troops occupy all the Catalan Pyrenees, falsely promise to the Catalonians their liberties will be given back and so get 19 volunteers’ battalions.
  • 6.1719: Massive uprising of “Carrasclets” through Tarragona and the Mountains. Guerilla revival.
  • 1719-1720: The Spanish Cavalry burst in Catalan homes that export liquor, and are destroyed, for having traded with Britain and Holland.
  • 1720-1790: Several grammars and apologies about the Catalan language appear.
  • 1721: The Duke of St. Simon visits Spain and difficultyly recognizes Felipe V: “His words were so dragged, his air so stupid than I was frightened” (St. Simon’s Memories).
  • “Escuadras de Valls” are created: an embryo of the “Mozos de Escuadra” for the Botifler repression against the Anti-Spanish guerilla.
  • 13.7.1722: Felipe V stays almost a year without changing his clothes, he wears unstitched trousers from the waist down, showing his buttocks (“Feuilles d’ Histoire”, Arthur Chuquet).
  • 1722: The misery and epidemies spread, while foreign troops eat and sleep at Catalan homes.
  • 1723: The Baron of Huart, “Corregidor” in Girona, orders every municipal document to be written in  Castilian.
  • 17.1.1724: Felipe V abdicates on his son Luís I, who “had the lights of a child, the curiosity of a teenager and the passions of a man” (St. Simon). He only reigns a few months.
  • Uprising in Majorca against the military conscription (“quintes”), but it degenerates in anti-Semitic lootings.
  • 1724-1733: When a Catalan town delays in paying the abusive taxes (like Valls) it’s forced to pay in kind sending Castilian troops to live in their homes.
  • 30.4.1725: Peace Treaty in Vienna between Felipe V and Karl VI. Two Bourbon sons marry two Austrian Archduchesses and many Austracist patriarchs recover part of their goods. But peasants remain without any benefit.
  • 1726: Confiscations and treats continue against towns in misery that are unable to pay the land Registry.
    Disorders: all young men flees from Reus to avoid enlisting at the Spanish Army.
  • 1726-1733: Thousands of Catalan patriots and fugitives are sentenced to 4 or 5 years to galleys and their leaders are executed. Doubtful cases are forced to serve in the Spanish Army.
  • 1728-1729: The patriots Janet de Pira, R. Guardiola and Negre de Montornès are arrested, executed, teared into pieces and these pieces distributed into cages at the main doors of Barcelona and in other Catalan towns.
  • 1731: Umpteenth Valencian attempt to recover its own Jurisdictions from part of the Botiflers.
  • 1734: New petition from the València Municipal Council
  • Catalan message to England: reminding the unfulfilled compromises with Catalonia..
  • 12.1734: Clandestine publication of the booklet “Via Fora els adormits”, a defense call to the lost freedom and territories.
  • 1734-1739: Some clergy-men are accused of anti-Spanish conspiracy and are secretly expelled from the country. Andreu Garcia and other ex-friars of Santes Creus still try to stir up the opressed peasantry against the degenerate Spanish Regime, in behalf of Karl VI (who is in war in Italy).
  • 1734-1741: Formation of Catalan battalions against the Bavarian and Hungarian insurrections.
  • 1736: The writing “Record de l’Aliança fet al Sereníssim Jordi Augusto, Rey de la Gran Bretanya” (Rememberance about the Alliance, did to the Very Calmed George August, King of Britain), dated “in the 22th year of our slavery”, circulates. It invokes the teatry of Geneve unfulfilled by England.
  • Felipe V’s physicians give a report of him: “frenzy, melancholy, morbid pleasure, mania, and hypochondriac melancholy” (“Manifestation of 100 secrets from Dr. Juan Curvo Semmedo…”).
  • 1740: Surely, within the British Army which fights against the Highland Scottish patriots there are Catalan refugees.
  • 1740-1748: Austrian Succession War, where enough Catalonians fight.
  • 1741: The great guerilla leader Carrasclet commands the exiled Catalonians’ battalion
    in Vienna against the Bavarians. He dies in Hungary fighting at the front of the Catalan Battalion.
  • 1742: The Valencian Academy, a Scientist Gregori Maians’ ambitious project (he is from an Austracist family) is torpedoed by circles from Madrid. The Council of Castile would order the sequestration of two of his books.
  • 1746: The genocide Felipe V dies.
  • 1746-1759: His successor is his son Fernando VI, 34 years old. He is a psychic depressive and will die young.