Arxiu d'etiquetes: GENOCIDE

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia

War of the Spanish Succession

A Chronology of the genocide and repression from France and Spain against  Catalonia

  • 2-4-1700: France forbids the Catalan language: Totalitarian edict by “the Sun-king” according to which only the French language has legal effects.The Catalan peasant population remains legally unprotected because they do not know the imperial language.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 05

  • 20-10-1700. The king of Castile and Aragon- Catalonia, Carlos II, drafts his last will in favor of the Duke of Anjou, in whole contradiction with the Pyrenees’ Treaty (1659), between Madrid andf Paris, which one explicitly excluded any right from the French Royal Dinasty on any Hispanic crowns through weddings: the Duke is Carlos II’s nephew.
  • 1700-1713:”The Academy of the Distrusted ones” works, founded as a literary institution, made up by writers who will stand out in their antibourbonism; as P.L.Dalmases, the Boixadors, the Pinós, the Rocabertí, etc…
  • 1-11-1700: Carlos II dies without direct offspring, he is the last Hispanic Habsburg.
    N. Feliu de la Penya wrote: “Carlos II…chose the Duke of Anjou…with Catalonians´ amazement…it was occasion for suspicion on some deceit” (“Anales”). As when the Barcelona Dinasty finished without direct offspring, and the Castilian Dinasty of the Trastamara got the Catalan crown (1412) against signed  treaties; so now a French anticatalan Dinasty gets Hispanic crowns against signed treaties.
  • 8-11-1700: News about his death arrive to Paris. The “Sun-King” is hunting “with his ladies”. Only on realizing it he calls the Duke of Anjou (in the future “Felipe V”), his son, and grandson of Felipe IV (Calos II’s father and an enemy against Catalonians during the Reapers’ War). The Duke, therefore carries on the title of the great medieval enemies of Catalonia (The Anjou), is “a man without intelligence, of a very unbalanced mood, sluggish…completely insensitive about the misery and pain of fellow human beings, wicked, he would have been cuel if he would not have been sluggish”, “engrossed in his fat and his darkness” (St. Simon). Thus, he is a lazy psychopath who will never do enough even to speak properly Castilian language. He is great-great-grandfaher of the great-great-grandfather of Juan Carlos I, the present Spanish king.
  • 11-11-1700: Manuel Oms de Santa Pau, ambassador from Madrid in Paris and Marquis of Castelldosrius, says to the Duke, in Castilian:”…the  Pyrenees are sank”. The Duke understand nothing despite the fact his mother is a Castilian Queen.
    16-11-1700: Louis XIV the tyrann apoints to his son King of the Spains.
  • 1700-1717: Decrees from the French absolute Monarchy to impose the French as the only official language of Courts and notaries in Northern Catalonia (under military French occupation since the Reapers´ war half a century before).
    18-2-1701: The Duke enters Madrid, where he is proclaimed king of Castile as Felipe V.
  • 1701: French traders control the Valencian trade business (Valencian Kingdom  is Southern Catalonia). The lower-class people accuse them of getting rich at their expense. The anti-French feeling spread amongst the Valencian lower clergy.
  • 9.1701: Great alliance at The Hague: England, Holland and the Empire (Austria); they propose the Archduke Karl as pretender to King of the Spains, since they fear the union of France and the Spanish Empire which would unbalance the distribution of the European power.
  • 2.10.1701: The Duke of Anjou meets Catalan Parliament and swears its laws and freedoms.
  • 10.1701: The Duke is appointed king of Catalonians: “Felip IV” in Catalonia (“Felipe V” in Castile).
  • At the end of 1701: France invades Holland.
  • 3.1702: The Allied declare war to France and to Felip V.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia

  • 1703: Leopold the Emperor proclaims the Archduke Karl as king of the Spains in Vienna.
    Prussia, Savoia and Portugal join to the Allied.
  • 1703-1704: Felipe V favour the French monopoly in the commerce in his kingdoms.
  • Spring.1704: In Vienna first contacts between the British representative Mitford Crowe and Antoni de Peguera i Aimerich (lord of Foix and Torrelles and a member of the Distrusters’ Academy) and the lawyer Domènec Perera, Catalan representatives.
  • 5.1704: Before Barcelona 1600 allied marines land. “Vigatans” (a small anti-Bourbon nobility from Vic, in Central Catalonia) had to open the doors for them, but the conspiracy is uncoverd and they have to flee through Gibraltar. The allied Army is under command of the prince Hessen-Darmstadt, last place General lieutinant in Catalonia under Carlos II, very popular among the Catalonians.
    Bourbon repression, imprisonments.
  • 1704: In Portugal the Archduke lands, the war mobilization starts in the peninsula.
    Decisive battle in Blenheim: Therefore the allied throw out the French Armies from Germany. Beginning of the decadence of Louis XIV’s enormous power.
  • 4.8.1704: The Valencian Gen. Basset and Catalan volunteers make easy the allied occupation of Gibraltar, lead by the Adm. Rooke. In Gibraltar there yet a “Catalan Bay”. Expulsion of the indigenous population to the Algesiras Bay.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 03

  • 17.5.1705: The military Moragues and other “Vigatans” and important persons grant powers to the Ll.D.Domènec Perera to do Catalonia to enter the anti-Bourbon alliance.
  • 5.1705: The anti-Bourbon uprising starts in the plane of Vic.
  • 2.6.1705: Geneve Pact: An Alliance’s treaty between the plenipotentiaries A. De Peguera and Dr. Perera (Catalonia) and Mr. Mitford Crowe (England). London promises 8000 soldiers, 2000 cavalry, ammunition and total support to the Catalan liberties. Catalonia  promises the support of its Parliament´s members and of the “Council of Hundred”, and 6000 men.
  • 20.7.1705: The allied fleet arrives at Barcelona. Propaganda at the Archduke´s favor.
  • 21.7.1705: Vigatans openly march to Barcelona, on his way gather supporters.
  • 4.8.1705: Catalan victory, with only 250 men against the 1000 foot-soldiers and 100 riders of the Bourbon viceroy.
  • 10.8.1705: The Anglo-Dutch fleet lands at Altea (Valencian Kingdom or Southern Catalonia). With them, Basset and Francesc Garcia land: the first, coming from other wars, the second, exiled from a former agrarian revolt.
  • 16.8.1705: Allied enter Alzira, nearby Valencia.
  • 17.8.1705: Basset lands at Dénia, where the Archduke is announced as the new Valencian King.

dénia arxiduc

  • Since 8.1705: The Valencian peasantry, after being oppressed by the lordshops’ abusive taxes, support the Austracists, who promise them improvement. They take the name of “Maulets” (a diminutive of “Mawla”, slave in Arabic), a name taken already by the rebelled preasantry in the Valencian Kingdom some years ago. Basset will be the brave radical military of these disinherited.
  • 24.8.1705: Moragues and 800 men turn up before Barcelona.
  • At the end 8.1705: Allied landing on Barcelona.
  • 14.9.1705: Allied attack on Montjuïc.
  • 15.9.1705: Second allied bombardment on Barcelona.
  • 9.10.1705: Barcelona surrenders to Charles Mondaunt, count of Petersborough.
  • 12.10.1705: Girona surrenders. Bourbon troops retreat to France.
  • 7.11.1705: The Archduke formally enters Barcelona: he takes an oath to the Catalan liberties.
  • 11.1705: Representatives from every Catalan countries, from the Catalan Aragon (even Monzon/Montsó) and from the Valencian North come to pay homage to the Archduke.
    Austracist conspirancy in Northern Catalonia (under French occupation).
  • 11 to 12.1705: Almost all the Central Catalonia goes over to the Allied. British occasionally help to conquer some strong place as Tarragona.
  • 15.12.1705: Basset with 500 countrymen and 300 riders arrives to Valencia. Bourbon followers (“botiflers” in Catalan, from “Beautiful+flowers”) lack means to make a defense. Prisoners’ riot.
  • 16.12.1705: The lower people gets out the street in Valencia to shout at the privileged ones and in favor of the Archduke, some prominent men imprison the Bourbon Viceroy and open the town doors to Basset.
    At St. Mateu (Valencian North) the British General Jone arrives.
  • 18.12.1705: Surrender of St. Mateu. The allied siege to Peníscola (Val.North) begins.
  • 12.1705: Exile of Valencian “botiflers”.
    “Maulets” and Allied control most in the Valencian Kingdom, and Basset assumes the government.
  • 12.1705 to 3.1706: The Catalan Parliament request to the Archduke (Charles III) to recover Northern Catalonia, under French occupation, and the access to the American trade, absolutely monopolized by Castilians.
  • 12.1.1706: The Castilian army of the Count de las Torres has failed at St. Mateu and comes down through the South. They attack Vila-real, a Maulet villa near by Castelló: they sack the town and its churches, slit the throat of civilians and set the villa on fire. 272 inhabitants die (among them 7 priests and 7 womwn) and take with them more than 200 prisoners. But more than 500 Castilian soldiers die too there, because of the brave civilian defence.
  • 2.1706: The British Gen. Petersborough arrives at Valencia and replaces Basset, judged too much radical. The new viceroy demands feudal taxes again.
  • 3.1706: Bourbon troops attack Central Catalonia.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 01

  • 4.1706: Defence of Barcelona, 50 Allied warships end up putting on retreat to the French fleet.
  • 2.7.1706: Charles III enters triumphantly at Madrid, with Catalan soldiers (“miquelets”), for great repulsion from the ancient anti-Catalanism of the capital city in the Empire.
  • 10.7.1706: Charles III has to retreat from Madrid to Aragon. Basset is accused of abuses when defending Xàtiva from the Bourbon troops and he is imprisoned by Petersborough.
  • 7.1706: Charles III is at Zaragoza, Felipe V come back to Madrid. Valencian popular indignation for Basset’s imprisonment.
  • 29.9.1706: The Anglo-Duch squadron shows up at Majorca Bay.
  • Ends.9.1706: Anti-Bourbon  popular  pressure in Majorca.
  • 10.1706: Charles III confiscates the Valencian botiflers’ properties. Expulsion of French citizens and exile of nobility from Majorca.Cartagena (in the ancient Murcia Kingdom,under Castilian occupation), where Catalan was still spoken, is occupied by Botiflers. Luís Belluga, the Bishop in Cartagena is a pro-Bourbon fanatic.
  • 11.10.1706: Belluga’s Castilians occupy Oriola (Southern Valencian Kingdom), where they will persecute the Catalan language: now, noone speaks Catalan there).
  • 21.10.1706: The offensive against the Valencian South continues: the Duke of Berwick takes up and sacks Elx.
  • 10.1706: Menorca and Eivissa go over to the Allied.”Maulet” uprising at the Plana (Castelló countryside).
  • 4.1707: Anglo-Dutch-Portuguese counter offensive against the Castilian border near the Valencian South.
  • 25.4.1707: Decisive battle at Almansa (La Mancha, near to Valencian Kingdom). 25000 Allied against 25000 French-Castilians. Allied retreat with 500 dead and 12000 prisoners. This serious defeat leaves València almost defenseless before Bourbons. Today still exists a Valencian popular saying that goes: “When the evil comes from Almansa reaches everybody”.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 02

  • 5.1707:French-Spanish troops march towards València, so Basset is finally released from the prison of Lleida (West-central Catalonia) to organize the Valencian resistance.
  • 8.5.1707: The Duke of Berwick arrives at València. The city is declared open.
    In addition, surrender of Zaragoza.
  • 12.5.1707: Berwick arrives at Castelló de la Plana, where he charges an exagerated tax of war and brings down the city walls.
  • 6.6.1707: Surrender of  Xàtiva (near to València), after a long siege.
  • 19.6.1707: The lieutenant Genaral d’ Asfeld commands to set fire and to destroy Xàtiva, the big Middle Age city. This genocide will be psychologically deeply significant.Expulsion of more than 18000 citizens from Xàtiva and change of name, its former Roman name pass to be replaced by “San Felipe”, in honor to the tyrann (until 1811). At Xàtiva, today still exists an official paint of Felipe V up side down.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 06

  • 29.6.1707: Felipe V signs the “Nueva Planta” decree against València and Aragon Kingdoms that he considers “conquered” and declares their ancient parlamentary laws abolished “…because the just right of conquer over them my weapons hacve made lately”. Nevertheless, Maulets still control the Valencian North and the Alcoi-Alacant-Dénia triangle in the Valencian South.
  • 1707: Very often the high Clergy in Catalonia are Castilians, Botiflers and ultra-popist. Also Jesuits are so. But the lower clergy is strongly austracist. And they often take part as contacts between conspiracies, prisoners and Allied, besides of inducing the people to the Archduke favor. Naples-Sicily goes over to the Archduke, Menorca to the Bourbon.
    End of the independence of Scotland by the “Covenant”, a treaty of voluntary union with England.
  • 30.9.1707: Felipe V donates Llíria, Xèrica, Barracas, etc., free villas, to the Duke of Berwick.
  • 14.10.1707: Lleida surrenders to the invaders.
  • 11.1707: Fall of Tàrrega, Cervera and El Pla d’ Urgell (West-central Catalonia).
  • 9.1.1708: Fall of Alcoi, after a severe siege: executions, reprisals and abolition of laws and the local festivities to St. George, patron saint of Catalonia.
  • 1708: A very unstable military situation at the Valencian North. D’ Asfeld, the arsonist of Xàtiva, controls the Audience of València, instrument of the foreign military occupation.
  • 11.7.1708: Bourbon troops occupy Tortosa (South-central Catalonia).
  • 7.1708: The Allied take over the island of Sardinia.
  • 17.9.1708: The Anglo-Dutch Squadron of Adm. Leake commanded by Gen. Stanhope easily recovers the island of Menorca (East Catalonia).
  • 17.11.1708: Spaniards occupy Dénia.
  • Beginning.12.1708: Alacant (Alicante in Spanish), occupied by the British that blow up part of the defences in the castle, is sieged by D’Asfeld.
  • 7.12.1708: Spaniards occupy Alacant. Along the Valencian Kingdom remains only guerillas.
  • 1709: The famine spreads along the Valencian Kingdom because of the war taxes.
    Valencian botiflers are unhappy against the new Castilian laws and send representatives in order to recover their ancient laws, these ones are too imprisoned. Narcís Feliu de la Penya publishes “Anales”, story on the war, seized by the Bourbon censorship. War at the Cerdanya (Pyrenees). Allied victories (Malplaquet…): Louis XIV is left so weakened that abandons his son and almost surrenders.
  • 1.7.1709: Salvador Feliu (Narcís’ brother) and other tradesmen, one of them resident in Gibraltar, found in Barcelona the new company of Gibraltar to replace the Cadiz monopoly in the American trade.
  • 1710: Second demand of return of the Valencian own laws, boycotted by a Court controled by Castilians.
  • 5.7.1710: Failed insurrectional attempt in València-city, at turning up 4 British warships that cannot land due to lack of popular support.
  • 7.1710: Battle of Almenara (North near to València), where Felipe V is about to die.
  • 27.7.1710: Catalan victory in Almenar (near Lleida).
  • 8.9.1710: New Maulet uprising at the Valencian North.
  • 28.9.1710: Charles III takes over Madrid once again.
  • 23.10.1710: The Bourbon Col. Ibáñez shoots 41 “miquelets” (austracist Catalan soldiers) imprisoned in Altura (North-west Valencian Kingdom).
  • 29.10.1710: Austracists bombard Morella ( Valencian North).
  • 9.11.1710: Charles III abandons again Madrid.
  • 15.11.1710: 60 Austracists dead in the attack against Morella.
  • 11.1710: Felipe V is enthusiastically welcome in Madrid.
  • 9.12.1710: The Duke of Vendôme defeats the British in Brihuega (Castile).
  • 10.12.1710: The Duke of Noailles defeats the Austrians in Villaviciosa (near Madrid).
  • 15.12.1710: While Morella surrenders, the Duke of Noailles lay siege to Girona (near Pyrenees) and Charles III comes back to Barcelona.
  • 25.1.1711: Girona surrenders.
  • 3.2.1711: Morella falls in Bourbon hands.
  • 1711: Josef I of Austria (Brother of Karl/Charles III) dies. Charles III is appointed as his successor (Karl VI). The Allied disaprove the accumulatioon of crowns and in addition everyone is tired. From now on the internatuional diplomacy will be decided.
  • 27.9.1711: Karl VI/Charles III abandons Catalonia, where he leaves his wife.
  • 2.1712: A peace Conference between  France and Holland-England starts in Utrecht (Holland).
  • 1712: New negotiations through the Duke of Vendôme: Valencian Botiflers want to recover the ancient Valencian laws.
  • 7.1712: Felipe V formally resigns to the French Crown.
  • 8.1712: Agreement on the hostilities suspension.
  • 12.1712: Tories, who are running England, are afraid of a union between the German and the Hispanic Empires and abandon the Alliance.Afterwards, also abandon Portugal and Holland.
  • 1712-1736: Sir Richard Kane, first British governor in Menorca, builds up the main road, dry up swamps, imports cattle.
  • 19.3.1713: The Empress, foreign diplomats and many families of noble Austracists boards from Barcelona to Italy and Vienna.
  • 20.3.1713: Starhemberg pledges allegiance to the post of lieutenant General of the place, in the Empress’ substitution.
  • 11.5.1713: The Utrecht Treaty remains signed.
  • 22.6.1713: Secret agreement in L’Hospitalet, signed at the Catalonians’ backs to hand over Catalonia to the Bourbon.
  • 24.6.1713: Starhemberg the First General declares the Gen. Moragues to be out of loyalty to Charles of Austria.
  • 25.6.1713: Starhemberg reveals the secret agreement to the Barcelona Council.
  • 26.6.1713: Moragues and the officers read the Starhemberg’s letter.
  • 1.7.1713: Austrians abandon Catalonia at its misfortune.
  • 6.7.1713: The 3 Arms’ Committee decides to resist to death.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 08

  • 9.7.1713: Catalan call to resist just before Starhemberg boarding: “Let the nation perish with glory!”.
  • 12.7.1713: Declaration f the Valencian Maulets in support at the Barcelona defence.
  • 13.7.1713: Conclusion of the Utrecht Treaty, powers make a partition of the Catalan Confederation’s medieval possessions: England keeps Menorca, Savoia will have got Sicily, Austria expropiates Sardinia -where rivers of Catalan blood flowed in the XIV-XV centuries- and Naples. The metropolis will stay under a more totalitarian boot: the Louis XIV’s lineage. The “Catalan tunic” shared out before the crucifixion.
  • 25.7.1713: The French-Spaniards begin the siege against Barcelona.
  • 1713: The Maulet guerillas still fight through la Marina and el Maestrat (Valencian countrysides) against the invader. The “General Superintendency” is created for the militar occupation of Central Catalonia.
  • 10.1713: Felipe V throws out the Montserrat Monastery its abbot.
  • 1.1714: First tax of occupation in Central Catalonia (not voted by the Catalan Parliament) provokes an uprising against the Bourbon occupants.
  • 3.1714: Radstadt Peace: The Emperor “Karl VI” receives the ex Catalan Italy.
  • 6.1714: The Utrecht Peace conclusion: Felipe V signs peace with Holland, Portugal still not join it.
  • 1714: Widower of his previous wife, Felipe V marries Isabel of Farnese, an ambitious and dominant fat woman who will control the government to war for Kingdoms to her sons.
  • Spaniards set fire to Manresa , St. Paul…(nearby Barcelona). Royal order (new piant is decree): “My wish of reducing every of my hispanic kingdoms to the uniformity…according to the Castilian laws”, lordly, centralist and absolutist laws.
  • Exile of  5000 Catalan Austracist to Austria. The General Council of Eivissa (Ibiza in Spanish) confirms its freedom will.
  • 6.7.1714: Berwick arrives to Barcelona with great reinforcements: 35000 troops, 5000 Cavalery. Towards 1485 troops, 380 Cavalry and 5000 of “La Coronela” (the united militias commanded by Villarroel) from Barcelona. The French-Spaniards overcome 10 times the Catalonians. According to Voltaire, up to 500 Catalan ecclesiastical men fought in arms to face the invasion.
  • Beginning.9.1714: Villarroel’s last harangue for the freedom of all Hispanic Kingdoms and the Catalan liberties towards France (economic competitor) and Castile (politic competitor) and for the stolen lands.
  • 11.9.1714: At 5 a.m. the attack starts through 7 breaches caused to the city wall by the Bourbon Artillery. 20000 French-Castilians begin the attack. The Council Chief, Rafael de Casanova, falls wounded between the sheets of the Sta. Eulàlia’s flag, the paleochristian martyr from Barcelona (patron saint after forbiden by Felipe V and replaced by a “Virgin of the Mercy”).
  • The combat is street to street and Berwick is forced to call for more troops from the reserve. At first hour in the afternoon, the heroic Catalonia’s capital has to surrender without reprisals, which will not be fulfilled.
  • The resistence of Barcelona had last 13 months and cause the admiration in the European public opinion, which compare it to the one of Saguntum and Numantia.
  • Even a British officer funds a “Barcelona” in Britain, in memory of the Catalan heroism.
    Barcelona has about 7000 houses. 6000 people die during the final siege, 4000 at the attack Day: die almost the most of defenders and part of the civil population.

War of Spanish Succession and its consequences for Catalonia 07

  • 18.9.1714: Occupation of other villas in Central Catalonia, no guaranty is fulfilled to by the invaders.
  • 3.10.1714: Disarmament Order for the Catalan civil population: Kitchen knives have to remain in chains, the country houses without wooden windows, etc.
  • 10.11.1714: Death Penalty Edict on anyone who try to leave from Catalonia without passport, but thousands continue fleeing the country.
  • End 1714: “Considerations about the case of the Catalans” and “The deplorable History of the Catalans”, two books in favor of Catalonia published in London, the last one printed by J. Baker and sold at the price of a shilling.
  • Before 1714: Maulet guerillas will last for several years but they will progressively become bandits because of  total Bourbon repression.
  • 10.1.1715: A graffity: “Entire Catalonia is a prison”.
  • At the beginning 1715: Several chroniclers talk about general misery in Central and Southern Catalonia.
  • 2.1715: Portugal has to join Utrecht without any profit: it remains at English hands to be defended from Castile/Spain.
  • 2 to 4.1715: Critical point of the Bourbon repression against Catalan militaries: within 3 months, over 3800 ones are imprisoned or deported.
  • 20.3.1715: When Moragues and other patriots were trying to board to Majorca are betrayed and fall in the Spanish clutches.
  • 27.3.1715: After brutal tortures, barefoot and wearning penitents’ shirt, Macip, Roca and Moragues are executed by garotte and teared appart. Moragues is about 40 years old, his head is put in a cage on an entrance door in Barcelona, with an “instructer” poster for the Catalonians’ lesson. In other towns also are left heads or hands in cages and gallows.

Poesia romàntica mallorquina 02

  • 1.6.1715: Felipe V orders to knock down the Barcelona fishermen neighbourhood called “La Ribera” to build up a Citadel: “For higher security and cautiousness against that town…putting…Artillery that dominates the city and keeps the people in subjection…”.
  • 13.6.1715: Spaniards forbid the Catechism in Catalan. “That great pride is depressed and already the preceptors of  H.M. are respected…by the superior force of weapons” (Council of Castile, speaking about Catalonians, in the plenary session).
  • 3.7.1715: After a month of resistance, Majorca falls in the clutches of Castile.
  • 7.1715: Eivissa also falls.
  • 1715: In many Catalan towns or villas there are no Botiflers (collaborationists) to form the City Councils, the population in mass is against the Spanish military occupation (Report from the Royal Committee).
  • The Vicar General at Barcelona, appointed by the invaders, calls to “obey, serve and venerate our king of Spain”.
  • Famished occupation troops settle in different villas. Madrid does not even pay to members ofd the powerful Council of Castile. Therefore they require and eat at Catalonians’ expenses.
  • Confiscation of property to any Austracist charge from 1713 to 1715. Law to reward the delation of anti-Bourbons: they will receive part of the confiscation if they denounce to any peasant who has given e.x. hurrahs to Charles III or shouted “Visca la Terra!” (“Long Life the Land!”, typical shout among the anti-feudal peasantry).
  • The big tyrann  Louis XIV, the “King-Sun”, dies.
  • 3.8.1715: (In Catalonia) “Houses full of soldiers. The rigor of the weapons is such that so a man (=Catalonians) is met in possession of a weapon, he is put to death”(Francesc Gelat).
  • 1715-1720: Famine in Central Catalonia.
  • 1715-1728: Escalation of Spanish taxes against  the Valencians.
  • 1.12.1715: “Everything must be formed in Castilian language…” (Fiscal’s report, from the Council of Castile).
  • 7.12.1715: Own government organs of Majorca and Eivissa are abolished by Madrid.
  • 9.12.1715: Royal Decree for the new tributary system. At the beginning the Royal Land Registry will be very abusive.
  • 22.1.1716: Sequestration of the historic book written by Narcís Feliu, considered “contrary to the State” by the Royal Committee.
  • 29.1.1716: J. Rodríguez Villalpando, the Fiscal, signs the “Secret Instructions” against the Catalan language in order to wipe it out.
  • 5.5.1716: The Abbot of Vivanco writes the definitive version of these “Secret Instructions”.
  • 1716: Courts in Barcelona and Majorca are created as instruments of the military administration of the Castilian occupation.
  • The building of the Citadel of occupation is started: neighbours, widows and children have to demolish the houses of a neighbourhood of 4000 inhabitants, with their own hands. This Citadel  is, nowdays, the actual seat of the Catalan autonomous Parliament.
  • Felipe V sends many Catalonians in an antiturkish expedition to Corfu.
  • 15.10.1716: Land Registry to pay the Castilian Army of occupation: Catalonia starts to subside its own executioners.
  • 20.2.1717: “(Put) the greatest care in introducing the Castilian language, in order to reach it the most composed pretencing measures will be given to get the effect without noticing the care” (“Dictated Instructions to the Correctors in Catalonia”). The Correctors (“Corregidores”) act as political Commissioners to force the Spaniardization.
  • 11.5.1717: “The tenacious Resistence of the Catalonians against the due subjection to my legitimate domain that theis perfidy did not admit…obliged my Providence to order Universities must be closed…”(Felipe V’s Decree, where this Antichrist names himself “Providence”). Catalan Universities remain abolished because they had been important centres of national resistance and culture. The botifler villa of Cervera (near Lleida) is rewarded with the creation of a University, “inclined to the Regime”. Very mediocre, it lacks even a library. Botifler professors flatter the Bourbon tyrann with the name of “Solon of Catalonia” because of the New Plant Decree.
  • 7.1717: Catalonians’ Mobilization to conquer Sardinia. Catalonians fight in both sides. Austria loses the island.
  • 1717: Growing madness and melancholy of Felipe V. The Bishop of Tortosa orders the only use of the Castilian on agreements and minutes.
  • 9.10.1717: Definitive abolition of the Lleida, Barcelona, Girona, Tarragona and Vic Universities. Bourbon authorities consider there is a surplus in students and that the plebs have not to access to the education.
  • 16.3.1718: Order to melt the “Honorata Bell”, which was used to call Barcelona citizens to fight against the invaders.
  • 1718:El Carrasclet’s Anti-Spanish guerillas. Alberoni, the Queen’s right hand, sends other army to occupy Sicily: she wishes some kingdom for her sons. Several deaths. Exiled Catalonians fight against the Turkish in the Balkans. Turkey hand over areas of  Rumania and Serbia to Austria.
  • 8.1718: Quadruple anti-Spanish Alliance: England, Austria, France and Savoia damn the Spanish Queen’s ambitions.France invades the Basque and Catalan borders.
  • 1718-1721: Civil Catalan War: Taking advantage of the invasion, Catalan patriots loot and set fire to possessions of those who collaborate with the Castilian occupation.
  • 5.1719: French troops occupy all the Catalan Pyrenees, falsely promise to the Catalonians their liberties will be given back and so get 19 volunteers’ battalions.
  • 6.1719: Massive uprising of “Carrasclets” through Tarragona and the Mountains. Guerilla revival.
  • 1719-1720: The Spanish Cavalry burst in Catalan homes that export liquor, and are destroyed, for having traded with Britain and Holland.
  • 1720-1790: Several grammars and apologies about the Catalan language appear.
  • 1721: The Duke of St. Simon visits Spain and difficultyly recognizes Felipe V: “His words were so dragged, his air so stupid than I was frightened” (St. Simon’s Memories).
  • “Escuadras de Valls” are created: an embryo of the “Mozos de Escuadra” for the Botifler repression against the Anti-Spanish guerilla.
  • 13.7.1722: Felipe V stays almost a year without changing his clothes, he wears unstitched trousers from the waist down, showing his buttocks (“Feuilles d’ Histoire”, Arthur Chuquet).
  • 1722: The misery and epidemies spread, while foreign troops eat and sleep at Catalan homes.
  • 1723: The Baron of Huart, “Corregidor” in Girona, orders every municipal document to be written in  Castilian.
  • 17.1.1724: Felipe V abdicates on his son Luís I, who “had the lights of a child, the curiosity of a teenager and the passions of a man” (St. Simon). He only reigns a few months.
  • Uprising in Majorca against the military conscription (“quintes”), but it degenerates in anti-Semitic lootings.
  • 1724-1733: When a Catalan town delays in paying the abusive taxes (like Valls) it’s forced to pay in kind sending Castilian troops to live in their homes.
  • 30.4.1725: Peace Treaty in Vienna between Felipe V and Karl VI. Two Bourbon sons marry two Austrian Archduchesses and many Austracist patriarchs recover part of their goods. But peasants remain without any benefit.
  • 1726: Confiscations and treats continue against towns in misery that are unable to pay the land Registry.
    Disorders: all young men flees from Reus to avoid enlisting at the Spanish Army.
  • 1726-1733: Thousands of Catalan patriots and fugitives are sentenced to 4 or 5 years to galleys and their leaders are executed. Doubtful cases are forced to serve in the Spanish Army.
  • 1728-1729: The patriots Janet de Pira, R. Guardiola and Negre de Montornès are arrested, executed, teared into pieces and these pieces distributed into cages at the main doors of Barcelona and in other Catalan towns.
  • 1731: Umpteenth Valencian attempt to recover its own Jurisdictions from part of the Botiflers.
  • 1734: New petition from the València Municipal Council
  • Catalan message to England: reminding the unfulfilled compromises with Catalonia..
  • 12.1734: Clandestine publication of the booklet “Via Fora els adormits”, a defense call to the lost freedom and territories.
  • 1734-1739: Some clergy-men are accused of anti-Spanish conspiracy and are secretly expelled from the country. Andreu Garcia and other ex-friars of Santes Creus still try to stir up the opressed peasantry against the degenerate Spanish Regime, in behalf of Karl VI (who is in war in Italy).
  • 1734-1741: Formation of Catalan battalions against the Bavarian and Hungarian insurrections.
  • 1736: The writing “Record de l’Aliança fet al Sereníssim Jordi Augusto, Rey de la Gran Bretanya” (Rememberance about the Alliance, did to the Very Calmed George August, King of Britain), dated “in the 22th year of our slavery”, circulates. It invokes the teatry of Geneve unfulfilled by England.
  • Felipe V’s physicians give a report of him: “frenzy, melancholy, morbid pleasure, mania, and hypochondriac melancholy” (“Manifestation of 100 secrets from Dr. Juan Curvo Semmedo…”).
  • 1740: Surely, within the British Army which fights against the Highland Scottish patriots there are Catalan refugees.
  • 1740-1748: Austrian Succession War, where enough Catalonians fight.
  • 1741: The great guerilla leader Carrasclet commands the exiled Catalonians’ battalion
    in Vienna against the Bavarians. He dies in Hungary fighting at the front of the Catalan Battalion.
  • 1742: The Valencian Academy, a Scientist Gregori Maians’ ambitious project (he is from an Austracist family) is torpedoed by circles from Madrid. The Council of Castile would order the sequestration of two of his books.
  • 1746: The genocide Felipe V dies.
  • 1746-1759: His successor is his son Fernando VI, 34 years old. He is a psychic depressive and will die young.

Racisme i Xenofòbia (Recopilatori)

Cançons del ghetto


Recordant el genocidi en el 60è Aniversari de la fi de la 2a Guerra Mundial a Europa
(sense oblidar el del nazifranquisme espanyol comés contra les nacions sota el seu jou)

“Crec en el sol encara que no brilli,
crec en l’amor encara que no es deixi sentir,
crec en Déu encara que no el vegi”
(Escrit al mur del call de Varsòvia, durant la Segona Guerra Mundial)

Visita fotogràfica al principal museu mundial de l’Holocaust (Iad Vaixem) a Israel!prettyPhoto

Amb la música de la llista de Schindler

Cançó jídix del call

My Yiddishe Momme

Cançó de guerrillers jueus

“Cançons del ghetto”



Nit de pluja i vent (Geien sei in shvarze raien)

Vent i pluja, vent i pluja.
Com un gos apallissat,
pels camins del fang que puja,
un parrac del poble fuig.
Per la plana, nit i dia.
Pluja i vent, pluja i vent.
¿On van, em dius, aquesta gent
com ombres grises a ponent?
Això, fill meu, ho sap el vent que els cansa,
això ho sap la nit que a poc a poc avança.
Però tu, dorm, fill meu; tu, dorm.
Tu, oblida pluja i vent.
Sento com el vent gemega;
és la nit un llarg lament,
i la pluja no anega
crits,sospirs i plor punyent.
és un poble que camina.
Pluja i vent, pluja i vent.
Un poble malparat i ranc
acorruant-se dins el fang.
Els seus rengles foscos i sense nombre
un a un s’enfonsen al buit profund de l’ombra.
Però tu, dorm, fill meu; tu, dorm.
Tanca la nit ben lluny de tu.
Jo no puc deixar de veure’ls
caminant amb pluja i vent.

Tanca els ulls (Mach she daine eigalech tzu)

Tancaran totes les portes:
les cases semblaran mortes
quan tu passaràs.
El carrer serà desert.
Amistats que avui creus fortes,
no ho seran pas.
Quin desconcert.
Sentiràs lladrucs de gossos;
els ullals el prendran mossos
de la carn del cos.
Fugiràs per viaranys
coneguts només pels óssos,
amb la pell i l’os, entre paranys.
Tanca els ulls i que el plor ragi,
i Raquel, dins el naufragi,
sentirà el teu plany.
Plorarà dins el cel blau
el gran Just del vell presagi.
Ell venç tot engany: Ja no ets esclau.


YISROLIK (en jídix)

Nu koyft-zhe papirosn,
nu koyft-zhe sakharin
Gevorn iz hant s’khoyre bilig vert:
A lebn far a groshn,
a prute – a fardinst —
Fun geto-hendler, hot ir dokh gehert

Kh’kheys Yisrolik, ich bin dos kid fun geto
kh’kheys Yisrolik, a hefkerdiker yung
Khotsh farlibn gole neto
Derlang ikh alts nokh
a sviftsh un a zung!

A mantl on a kragn,
takhtoynim fun a zak
Kaloshn hob ikh, s’feln nor di shikh
Un ver es vet nor vagn
tsu lachn oy, a sakh
Dem vel ich nokh vayzen ver bin ikh

Kh’kheys Yisrolik, ich bin dos kid fun geto
Kh’kheys Yisrolik, a hefkerdiker yung
Khotsh farlibn gole neto
Der lang ich altst nokh
a sviftsh un a zung!

Nit meint mikh hot geborn
di hefkerdike gas
Bay tate-mame oych geven a kind
Kh’hob beydn on gevoyrn,
nit mayntes iz a shpas
Kh’bin geblibn vi in feld der vint

Kh’kheys Yisrolik,
nor ven keyner zet nit
Vish ich shtil zikh fun oyg arop a trer
Nor vun maynt troyer-
baser oz men redt nit
Tsu vos dermanen un makhn s’harts zikh shver?


Ei, tabac! vine a comprar les meves cigarretes,
Sacarina! Vingueu a comprar la meva sacarina!,
En aquests dies les coses van ben barates.
Una vida per només un cèntim,
un cèntim és el meu guany.
Aquests són els empresaris del ghetto, ja saps.

El meu nom és Yisrolik, sóc un noi legal del gueto,
Em diuen Yisrolik, un noi lliure i fàcil de dur.
I encara que estic “net” i no tinc res de res,
encara puc fer uns xiulits i encara puc cantar!

El meu abric no té coll i els pantalons són recosits d’un sac,
Em fic botes d’aigua perquè he perdut les meves sabates.
Però a tot el qui s’atreveix a riure’s de la meva pinta,
Jo li mostraré jo no comet abusos!

El meu nom és Yisrolik,
Un xic legal del gueto,
El meu nom és Yisrolik,
Un tipus javaloies.
I encara que m’han deixat pelat,
un xiulit i cantar és la meva resposta!

No creguis pas que jo vaig néixer en la misèria,
Una mare i un pare em van criar i també em van estimar.
Tots dos se’ls van endur lluny de mi,
i és inútil queixar-se’n,
però he perdut tant, i no crec que això tingui res de divertit:
em vaig quedar tot sol igual que el vent que bufa fora de la llar, és la veritat.

El meu nom és Yisrolik, sóc un al·lot del gueto,
Em dic Yisrolik, un noi una mica destarifat.
I encara que estic “pelat” i no tinc res de res
Encara puc xiular i encara puc cantar!
I quan ningú no està mirant,
Des dels meus ulls ragen les llàgrimes silenciosament, I me les torc.
Però aquesta angoixa…
és molt millor no parlar del meu dolor,
Per què recordar,
quant pot suportar un cor que està a soles?



Rifkale, dins l’aldarull que fan els telers,
muda quan cal les llançadores,
fa un nus a I’ordit.
Mentrestant pensa en el ghetto
on regna la basarda
ja fa setmanes,
un mes potser.
Rifkale, mentre treballa dintre del brogit,
pensa en Herschel, el seu home,
amb el cor encongit.
On l’han dut, com den patir-hi,
com deu pensar en Rifkale,
en el seu menut
que ell no coneix.
Rifkale canta perquè s’adormi el seu fill:
“Aviat coneixeràs el pare;
portarà llet i pa,
sucre, farina i mantega, un munt de coses bones”.
Rifkale no sap
que el seu home és mort.

Filletes meves (Kinderlech)

Bonic tresor,
valeu tot l’or
d’aquest món.
Deixeu que segui aquí,
ben al vostre costat,
i jo us faré adormir
amb un somni dolç i daurat.
Dos angelets
dos reietons
Ben eixerits i bonics,
com vosaltres, iguals.
Fa poc que van morir,
i mai no m’ho acabaré.
Seré la vostra mare
des d’ara, si voleu.
Com feia la que heu perdut,
de tot us guardaré.
Us cantaré cançons.
A casa, juntes, farem jocs,
pastissos dels millors.
I al vespre us acotxaré.

Moide ani

Moide ani.
Moide ani.
Moide ani davant teu, Senyor.
Sóc aquí
davant teu.
Veus, Senyor Déu,
com soc ara?
Què queda encara d’allò que era?
Malmenat per tanta gent
he perdut l’ensenyament
dels nostres vells llibres sagrats.
Moide ani…
Dret aquí,
davant teu,
sóc, Senyor Déu,
jove encara.
Qualsevol, ara,
em perdria.
D’on treuré l’enteniment
per viure en un món dolent
sense el suport de l’oració?
Moide ani…

Ta mare no tornarà (Dain mame kimt nit zurik)

Al seu niu, l’ocell
tanca el finestró.
Dorm menut, com ell.
Dorm i reposa.
No entenguessis, no,
la meva cançó.
Que tens la sort
de no saber
què t’ha fet la mort.
No hi és la mare
ni el pare.
Cap dels dos no tornarà.
Al seu niu, l’ocell
tanca el finestró.
Dorm, menut, com ell.
Dorm i reposa.
No t’ha pas de fer por
la meva cançó.
Ara dorm l’ocell
dins el seu recés.
Dorm, menut, com ell.
Dorm i reposa.
Els teus amics primers,
no els veuràs mai més,
mai més.

Foc (S’brent bridelech, de Mordehai Gebirtig, mort al call de Cracòvia el 1942)

Foc, per arreu foc.
El nostre poble és tot ell, foc.
El vent cobreix amb torterols
de flama i fum el caseriu,
l’horta que baixa cap al riu,
els arbres sols, tot sols.
Amb els ulls ben secs ploro, germans,
a la roja llum.
Torça el dolor les meves mans,
com foc.
Foc, per arreu foc.
El nostre poble és, tot ell, foc.
Llengües de foc, braços de foc,
horrible és l’abraçada.
El cel s’ha omplert,ben a poc a poc,
d’ales de foc, de foc.
A sota plou cendra i fosca,
dol i desolació.
Em torça les mans aquest dolor,
de foc.
Foc, per arreu foc.
El nostre poble és, tot ell, foc.
Només de tu pot rebre ajut
contra la mort, el nostre poble.
I si tu vols, i et queda sang,
res no és perdut, perdut.
Càvec, pic, galleda, destral,
tot et pot servir.
Si et resta la sang, res no has perdut
al foc.

A l’hivern, la neu (A idish kindfun Poilen)

A l’estiu la pluja.
A l’hivern, la neu.
Corren per la plana
els gossos blancs del fred.
Per la porta oberta
entra el cel feixuc,
i l’hivern ens mira
del fons del món estant.
L’ullal blanc de gebre
clavat a la carn,
tots els nostres homes,
l’hivern se’ls ha enduts.
I mai cap no torna.
Que hi pensi tothom.
¿Quina primavera
pot néixer del crim?

Marxa cap a la mort (Tzien sich machnes fartribene)

Marxa solemne dels bandejats
llançats al dolor del llarg camí,
petits, vells, de totes les edats.
Cada pas els arrenca de casa,
i brutalment se’ls endú el destí
per camps d’estupor, tot fang o pols.
Caminen en rengles sense fi,
un trist exèrcit. Són molts.
Un invisible pastor mena el ramat
atiant els gossos d’esgla! i basarda
des d’una brillant taula de despatx.
I ells, defallint i traient força,
encara un xic, de l’extrem cansament,
s’allarguen com un riu cap a llevant.
És l’ombra d’un poble que ja no viu,
un poble sencer de Morts en vida.
Amb abrigalls bruts de terra i fang,
el feble recolza al braç del fort,
i avancen feixugament pel fang.
La mare estreny la criatura.
Vinclen el cap sota la dissort
Ningú no pregunta cap on van;
tots saben que van al camp de mort,
I tanmateix, endavant.

Cant dels guerrillers (Letzen weig)

No diguis mai que s’acaba el teu camí.
No creguis pas ser al teu darrer revolt.
El rúfol cel d’avui no pot pas enfosquir
el demà que tindrem, d’aire net i de sol.
El temps vindrà i el dia, l’hora i el minut
sentirás com la nit retruny del nostre pas.
Ja som aquí! S’ha fos amb l’enemic vençut
aquest passat on has cuidat morir.
El nostre cant, que s’estengui com un foc.
El nostre cant, que s’allargui com el vent.
Que com pluja d’abril amari a poc a poc
les gleves de dolor dins el cor de la gent.
No diguis mai que s’acaba el teu camí,
no creguis pas ser al teu darrer revolt.
Ja som aquí. Portem, amagat el sarró,
un sol llevant, el dur triomf de la claror.
No diguis mai que petges el darrer revolt.
Ja som aquí, milers, i tots portem el sol.

L’infant cremat (Dos ingele ligt farbrent)

Sota els carreus fumats de la muralla,
darrera l’enderroc que fou ciutat,
que fou presó, hostal, lloc de batalla,
l’antic germà, despert, ha somiat,
i ha tornat l’anyell al jaç de palla
cremat amb ell a l’estable cremat.
L’antic germà somia, i per la cendra
el xai encara ve, blanc i rullat,
i al llom del lleopard posa el cap tendre
com si mai, com si res no hagués passat.
A tu, dona, ningú no et pot prendre
el dolor que et reté al mur cremat.
A l’enderroc negrós de la muralla
que fou presó, castell, lloc de combat,
el foc ja s’ha estroncat, i la nit calla
amb silenci feixuc d’eternitat.
La nit s’ha fet pacífica mortalla
del teu fillet que va morir cremat.

La guerra s’ha acabat (Und der krig iz geendigt)

Som a la fi de la guerra
silenci en els camps plens de mort.
No podem, però, mirar la terra
amb justa pau dins el cor.
Dispersat, el poble no retroba,
dins l’esclat del trompeteig de festa,
el braó i l’orgull.
Perqué oblidi la tempesta
haurem de fer, dins la pau nova,
un llarg camí,
un llarg camí!.
Guardo, del foc que s’apaga,
la flama tenaç del record.
Els millors dels nostres, els vam perdre
a la timba de la mort.
La raó de viure que ells tenien,
n’hem de fer, nosaltres, alegria;
l’hem de dur món enllà.
Perquè sigui llum del dia,
abans de l’alba encara ens resta
un llarg camí,
un llarg cami.
Som a la fi de la guerra:
oblit en els camps de la mort.
Ara cal tenir l’esme de viure,
que bati ben fort el cor.


Cançons del ghetto 03


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Cançons del ghetto 13
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Dachau Liberation

Cançons del ghetto 14


To Israel from Buchenwald

Cançons del ghetto 11